How to graft a rose, at what time to budding rose hips

  • Step-by-step instructions for budding
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Copulation
      Simple and improved
  • In the cutout, in the cleft, behind the bark
  • Video
  • Growing roses in most Russian regions is fraught with difficulties, primarily associated with insufficient winter hardiness of plants. To obtain bushes more adapted to local conditions, specialists from nurseries producing planting material and experienced rose growers use various methods of grafting roses onto rose hips. If you are ready for such experiments, then be patient - a successful result may not be obtained the first time and you will have to wait for several years.

    Grafting technologies are also used in the formation of spectacular pink “trees” with a high trunk

    We offer information about the most frost-resistant varieties of crops and brief descriptions of popular varieties in the article on our website.

    Rose grafting: theory

    Grafting roses onto rose hips is the main method of rose propagation. Spring is considered the best time of year when this procedure can be carried out most successfully. When planning to graft a plant, gardeners prepare in the fall.

    The main key technical concept in the grafting section is budding. This term refers to a method of grafting a rose, when a specially grown rootstock bush is taken - a rose bud is grafted onto it. Usually the rootstock is rosehip, but there are other ways.

    To successfully propagate rose varieties, vegetative methods are used.

    When trying to obtain flowers from seeds, the result is mediocre: the resulting flowers are deprived of their original data, which is associated with a high level of splitting of these data during seed propagation.

    For high-quality grafting, excellent compatibility of the rootstock and scion is required. Without this, the kidney will not take root. Incompatibility sometimes appears later, when already mature plants begin to break at the budding site. If the fusion of the rootstock with the scion is as good as possible, then this will ensure both the growth and flowering of the new plant.

    What is vaccination and when should it be done?

    What is vaccination and when to do it is the first thing you should understand. It is also necessary to understand why it is made.

    Grafting is a method of propagation in which the fibers of one plant are crossed/spliced ​​with the fibers of another plant. Actually, thanks to this method of reproduction, a lot of hybrids have appeared. The grafting method also makes it possible to make the flower more resistant to certain factors, such as frost.

    Crossing can be not only between two identical varieties; for example, a rose is often grafted onto a rose hip. You can also try grafting a purchased rose or a rose from a gift bouquet onto a bush flower. If you follow the instructions and advice correctly, you will get a new, beautiful bush that will delight you.

    Almost any flower can be grafted, but it is important to consider some requirements:

    • only dormant buds that have already bloomed are grafted;
    • Only shoots 6-7 millimeters long are suitable for grafting, and the branch must be strong enough (soft and bendable ones are not suitable);
    • if grafting is delayed, then place the cut cuttings in a cloth, which must always be kept damp so that the plant does not die.

    These three rules must be followed, otherwise nothing will come of it. However, there are still many nuances that appear directly in the process. Let's try to understand each of them.

    When to propagate roses? A controversial issue among gardeners. And here you should start from the varieties that you are grafting.

    In most cases, a rose is a heat-loving plant, so it is believed that it is better to plant a flower in the summer. July and August are the best period for planting roses.

    Experienced gardeners graft in the winter, but at this time of year there is a very high chance that the plants will not take root, since the cold slows down growth. © method is used extremely rarely.

    Why do roses turn wild?

    Amateur flower growers often wonder what is the reason that a rose turns into a rose hip as it grows. This may be due to the gardener’s lack of experience or poor quality planting material.

    In the photo there is a wild rose

    Some seedlings leave rosehip buds in places below the grafting and, thus, when the root system is already formed, these buds throw out shoots. New shoots drown out previously grafted shoots, taking away nutrition. The rose also runs wild due to poor choice of rootstock.

    There are rosehip varieties called “early ripening”: they have aggressive, fast growth and are poorly suited for grafting. The new growth choke out the grafted crop, preventing it from growing.

    The rose also turns wild due to mistakes made during planting. When the grafting site is not deepened into the ground, the scion quickly weakens and is drowned out by rose hips. When the plant is not hilled up or wrapped up with the arrival of the cold season, this also becomes the reason for the degeneration of a cultivated rose into a rose hip.

    Preparation of the rootstock

    Rosehip is a completely worthy rootstock for roses and often plays this role. It has a strong and well-developed root system, and also has good resistance to pests and diseases. A rose that is properly grafted onto a rose hip has sufficient winter hardiness.

    As a rule, stockpiling is carried out in the autumn:

    ideal for harvesting is a rosehip bush with powerful and long young shoots without branches growing from the base; Using a sharp pruner, you need to cut out all the shoots, and leave one, the most powerful one, to form a rose trunk; the side branches from the left shoot must be shortened to a length of 20 cm, after which the plant should be carefully dug up; Rose hips prepared in this way should be stored in a cool room until spring; in early spring, you should inspect the rootstock for the presence of dead or broken roots, carry out sanitary pruning and immerse them in a clay mash with the addition of a root formation stimulator

    When planting a rootstock in a permanent place, you should be sure to deepen not only the root collar, but also the beginning of the stem part. Planting should be carried out in an area allocated for the flower garden.

    You can grow rootstock material from rosehip seeds, but this method is more labor-intensive and time-consuming.

    Timing of rose hip grafting

    The best time to graft roses is in the summer, somewhere in the last ten days of July or the first of August. It is then that sap flow increases, the bark easily moves away from the wood, and the graft takes root better.

    In the spring, vaccination is also possible, it is better to do it before the buds break, this is somewhere at the end of April or the very beginning of May.

    It is most difficult to vaccinate in winter, as there is a lot of hassle. First, young seedlings are planted in containers and grown in the basement, and cuttings are prepared in the fall and stored in a cool place.

    What you will need in the process:

    1. Rosehip is a rootstock, one-year or two-year-old.
    2. Cuttings taken from the middle part of the cultivated stem.
    3. A sharp knife or grafting pruner.
    4. Garden varnish for lubricating cuts.
    5. Dressing material - electrical tape, pieces of polyethylene, special garden dressing tape.

    Terms of work and receipt of rootstock

    The timing of autumn rose grafting is limited: August - mid-September, since active sap flow must still take place in the plants . The advantage of the autumn season is cool, humid and not very sunny weather. Such conditions increase the survival rate of the scion. The vaccination is carried out by budding with a sleeping eye, that is, a kidney.

    To graft a rose, you must have a suitable rose hip bush. You can buy it, but it’s better to grow it yourself. Rosehip seeds are harvested in August - the first ten days of September. The most suitable plants are local wild rose hips, as they will have a good root system and are quite resistant to various diseases. Rosehip bushes growing in the sun are better suited for collecting seeds, but you need to take boxes that are not fully ripe. Sowing of prepared seeds is carried out in November or early spring (in this case, the seeds must undergo stratification). With proper care, by next August the rootstock for the decorative rose will be ready. The rootstock for standard roses is grown for several years.

    Video: preparing seeds for growing rose hips

    The rootstock must meet certain conditions:

    • developed root system;
    • the root collar has a diameter of at least 10 mm and a length of several centimeters to make budding convenient.

    Budding instructions

    Any beginner must know how to graft a rose onto a rosehip. This procedure is divided into several stages.

    The photo shows rose budding step by step

    How to choose the right rootstock

    • When choosing a rootstock, preference should be given to varieties with high cold resistance.
    • The variety must also be resistant to fungal diseases. Rose hips fully meet these requirements. Another positive point is the small number of thorns that interfere with the grafting procedure. All these reasons force gardeners to choose rose hips as a rootstock.
    • Rootstock plants must be strong and healthy. Must be at least one year old, but not more than five years old. The optimal thickness is up to 7 mm.
    • About two weeks before budding, loosen the rose hips and make sure the soil is moist. The day before the grafting procedure, the rose hips are watered with slightly warmed water without lime.
    • A little later, just before grafting, the soil from the bush is raked off and the root collar is exposed. It is washed well with water and rubbed with a napkin on the place where the vaccination will be done.

    Preparing rose buds

    When carrying out summer budding, the scion material is prepared immediately. If the grafting is done in the spring, before the buds open, then the cuttings are stored in the fall. They must be stored in a cold place, for example, a basement or refrigerator with a temperature of minus 4 - plus 1. The day before cutting the cuttings, the plant is moistened abundantly.

    Preparing rose buds

    Description of the grafting process

    It is advisable to carry out vaccination in the morning, before the moisture has dried under the influence of high air temperature. The weather should be warm, without rain.

    1. On the day of the procedure, full shoots, up to 5 mm thick, are taken from the rose. One larger bud is selected from the middle part of the shoot - it will be used as grafting material.
    2. On the wiped and prepared root neck of the rootstock, carefully cut the bark in the form of a large T. On the scion shoot, carefully bend the shield and cut it at a shallow depth, dividing the petiole along with the bud. The edges of the cut on the rosehip are slightly unfolded with a knife and a bud is inserted into the formed gap.
    3. The bud is pressed tightly to the rootstock, trying not to break it. The budding area is well tied with a garden tourniquet, but the eye must be open.
    4. After grafting, the plant needs to be covered with loose and moist soil. After a couple of weeks, you can examine how successful the vaccination was. If the leafy black has fallen off, but the bud remains green, it means that the fusion of the rootstock and scion has given a positive result.
    5. The length of the shield cannot be less than 3 cm: with a larger area of ​​contact, the chance of survival increases.
    6. Tools must be as sharp and disinfected as possible. Gardening photodegradable tape is usually used as a strap; you can use electrical tape or polyethylene.

    Tools and strapping material

    Grafting is an operation and its implementation requires not only the skillful hands of a gardener, but also high-quality gardening tools. To work with the material (scion, rootstock), you can use the following tools:

    • grafting pruner;
    • budding knife;
    • gardening scissors.

    The grafting pruner has replaceable knives and makes it easier to make cuts of the same size on scions and rootstocks. Well-made cuts guarantee a good result. Cut the cuttings with garden shears. Models made of high-strength steel, small in size, with rubberized handles are easy to use.

    Purpose of the budding knife: to make even T-shaped cuts, cut off the shield. The blade has a special knuckle for separating the bark from the wood. The edge is sharpened on one side, the sharpening angle is sharp

    The quality of the steel from which the blade is made and its thickness are important; it should not exceed 2 mm. To sharpen the blade, you need a coarse-grained stone and Goi paste for polishing

    On a note. The result of grafting depends not only on the quality of the instruments, but also on its cleanliness.

    You can make the strapping material yourself or purchase it at a specialized store. Usually they simply cut the tape to the required width from a suitable material:

    • polyethylene film;
    • medical oilcloth;
    • electrical tape.

    When budding, the width of the tape is 15 mm, the width of the strapping for fixing the cutting is 25 mm.

    Grafting method: copulation

    Copulation is a grafting method with two or three eyes. This method is considered the simplest and is suitable even for beginners. It is better to graft roses in early spring, before the sap begins to flow. To carry out grafting using the copulation method, the main thing is the same diameter of the rootstock and scion.

    On both sides, an oblique cut is made, maintaining the same angle of inclination. You need to be able to make cuts in one movement; for this, the tool must be well sharpened. After making the cut, the rootstock and scion must be combined and tightened with a tight bandage.

    Rules for copying

    • Cuttings for copulation should be taken care of in November.
    • Make cuts with a perfectly clean, disinfected and sharpened instrument. You can take a garden knife or a special grafting pruner.
    • Do not dirty the cut area, otherwise there is a risk of infecting the plant. Therefore, it should not be touched with crayfish. If the scion suddenly falls to the ground, it is rinsed in water, and the cut itself is renewed.
    • The junction is wrapped very tightly. This will retain moisture and ensure the graft is secure.
    • It is better to carry out copulation in the evening or on a cloudy day. It is unacceptable to do this in hot or rainy weather.
    • Well grafted cuttings grow actively. As soon as they grow three centimeters, the bandage can be removed so as not to overtighten the plant. The grafting site is covered with garden varnish.

    Recommendations and common mistakes

    Vaccination is not that easy. The procedure requires precision, and even experienced gardeners make mistakes. To avoid them, it is recommended to follow these tips:

    1. For the job, it is better to use a special knife, but you can use a regular one if you sharpen the blades very well.
    2. Instruments should be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or another antiseptic.
    3. If you are not sure, you should practice cutting out buds on unnecessary rose shoots.
    4. The sizes of the cuts must correspond exactly to each other so that the scion fits tightly into the rootstock.

    Budding - eye grafting

    Budding is a common grafting method. The scion is a single bud or eye, as amateur gardeners call it. The eye is taken from a cultivated shoot and grafted onto the trunk of wildflowers.

    In the spring, the peephole formed last summer is used. It can be taken from shoots harvested in the fall or in February. This bud will give rise to a new shoot in the same year.

    In the summer, the vaccination is done with the bud of the current season, cutting it off just before the procedure. It will slowly take root, overwinter and give rise to new shoots only in the next season. Therefore, gardeners call such a peephole “sleeping”.

    Grafting standard roses

    Standard roses are easily recognized by their beautiful, lush crown, which is supported by an elongated standard. This is an exclusively cultivated plant; it does not grow in the wild. Standard varieties are budded in the same way as ordinary roses.

    1. Before the rose grafting procedure, the rootstock is cleared of soil, washed, dried and a classic T-cut is made. Several eyes are taken from a standard rose, without the bark shield. A cut is made on the rootstock, and without removing the knife, they move the edges of the bark with it and fill it with the shield of the new bud. If it does not fit, it is reduced by taking away the side parts of the shield.
    2. After placing the eye into the incision, the bark is tied as tightly as possible. The classically correct option: length 19-20 cm, width – 1 cm. This will ensure the closest contact between the trunk and the shield.
    3. After two to four weeks we can talk about the effectiveness of the vaccination. During this time, the bud will swell and the leaf will fall off. If the attempt is unsuccessful, the bud will dry out or turn brown.

    Standard rose pruning method

    Photos of standard roses

    Grafting roses onto rose hips on a standard

    Features of spring vaccination

    When budding in the spring, mature buds are used that have overwintered in a cold place and are ready to germinate. This type of grafting is called budding with a germinating eye. As a rule, shoots harvested in the fall are used. Sometimes you can take material from a bush that has successfully survived the winter. The cuttings are carefully inspected for damage or disease.

    Sick, dried out, blackened ones should be selected immediately.

    Spring budding is worked out according to the generally accepted algorithm. After its completion, the rootstock is pruned. The height of the cut should be 1/3 of the length of the cutting.

    The only convincing indicator of the success of rose grafting is the germination of the eye. Without this, you will have to try budding again in the summer.

    If the vaccination is done in the spring, the strapping is left for a year. To avoid constrictions and damage to the bark, elastic materials are chosen.

    Features of summer vaccination

    Summer budding of roses onto rose hips is called dormant eye grafting. This is due to the fact that the bud appeared in the new year. If the scion and rootstock have taken root, full development and growth will be possible only with the arrival of a new spring, that is, after wintering.

    The leaf blade is removed from the scutellum, preserving the petiole. This petiole will signal how well the graft has taken root or died.

    After one and a half to two weeks, the blackberries are checked. Upon contact, it falls off, and the eye remains green. These signs indicate the success of rose grafting. Otherwise, the vaccination will have to be done again.

    The graft cannot be frozen, so before the onset of cold weather the plant is mulched and covered. Mulch should be a material that retains heat well, such as peat or sawdust. The plant also needs to be protected from rodents, which often attack during wintering.

    In spring, the plant is freed from excess soil and bulk material, otherwise it may rot. The binding is removed so that there are no ties. The plant is cut at a height of one centimeter above the grafting site. This, in turn, better activates the growth and development of the new kidney. Then the rose is hilled up again, making the mound higher.

    Preparatory work

    Before carrying out a high-quality vaccination, you need to carry out some preparatory measures. You need to prepare both the scion and the rootstock. A rosehip bush suitable for grafting should be pre-watered abundantly for a week; this procedure should be carried out with special care the day before the intended grafting. This will help increase the flow of juice.

    Important! For a rootstock, a healthy rose hip with a developed root under the age of 3 years is best suited. The root neck should be up to 1 cm thick

    The plant bark should be mature and peel off from the base.

    You need to dig up the rosehip bush, carefully clean the root from the soil and wipe it. The top layer should have a light tone. After this, the rosehip is ready for grafting.

    Next you need to prepare the rose. To do this, you should select a suitable area on a sufficiently mature stem with buds that do not open and cut off the stalk in the area of ​​​​the middle part of the branch, approximately 5 cm long. In this case, move the knife, which should be sharp and clean, quickly, sharply and towards you

    Next, you need to carefully remove the leaves and thorns so as not to harm the bud.

    The cuttings should be thinner than the rosehip shoots prepared for grafting. They can also be obtained from a bouquet of roses. It is recommended to store cuttings prepared for grafting in damp cloth, and all work related to grafting is best carried out in dry weather.

    Important! The scion should be characterized by smoothness and shine of the bark, and also have 2-3 developed buds. Only then will he be successfully vaccinated

    It is recommended to cut cuttings in the morning to preserve the juice.

    Key points for winter budding

    Winter budding of roses occurs in the first two months of winter - January and February. In December, budding is not carried out due to low light activity. When choosing a rootstock, choose young rose hips, harvested in the fall. They are planted in containers with turf and placed in the basement or other cool, dry place.

    The rootstock must have an even root collar at least 1 cm thick. A standard rose can be grafted onto less massive necks, but the success of the enterprise will still be 50/50.

    Winter grafting of roses should be practiced a month after placing the rootstock in a warm place. A couple of weeks before vaccination, the temperature in the room is gradually increased and brought to 18 degrees. It cannot be raised above 20 degrees, as there is a risk of rot.

    In a few days, the rosehip will begin to flow sap and produce fresh shoots. When cut, the bark will come off easily; this is important when grafting.

    When can roses be grafted?

    1. In the spring. Unlike fruit trees, this grafting is not the most optimal for roses. It is carried out in cases where plants grafted the previous year did not survive the winter. It is more difficult to make than the summer one due to the lack of a petiole. The main criteria for such vaccination are intense sap flow and the onset of positive temperatures.
    2. In summer. The optimal time for this event is July-August, when the sap flow of roses increases, which is necessary so that the grafting can first be carried out and then take root. Most often, roses are grafted in the summer, since at this time all factors are combined: the plants are completely ready, and it is more convenient and comfortable for people to carry out such an operation.
    3. In winter. Ordinary gardeners do winter grafting much less often. This is explained by the fact that it requires a number of works that do not need to be done in the summer. In other words, vaccination in winter is a very troublesome matter. But it has its own meaning: the grafted plants will not be damaged by frost and will immediately begin to grow after spring planting, forming a small bush before the fall. Winter grafting is carried out in closed, warm rooms using previously prepared rootstocks and scions. This vaccination can be done from the second half of December to February.

    Caring for rose hips after grafting

    • Over the course of a week, the grafted shrub is watered abundantly with settled water. It is necessary to remove weeds, clean the area of ​​foreign plants, and loosen the soil.
    • With high-quality grafting in the fall, the rose will produce young shoots. To ensure a safe wintering, the bush is hilled up and mulched with dry leaves and sawdust. They get rid of such shelter in the spring. Since the bush will begin to rot and rot.
    • In the spring, the grafted part of the bush is cut off by one eye, about half a centimeter, and covered with garden varnish. After three weeks, the eyes will hatch. After three leaves appear, the crown is pinched. It is better to remove the buds and pinch out all young shoots. This will allow the gardener to grow a spreading, lush bush.
    • In the fall, the annual bush can be planted in a permanent place.

    How to graft roses from a bouquet

    Roses are also grafted from a bouquet. The process looks like this:

    1. The bouquet is placed in water for four days.
    2. Cuttings with two buds are cut and the thorns are removed.
    3. The stem is separated at the bottom by one and a half centimeters and placed in the solution to take root.
    4. Prepare soil enriched with humus and plant the rose.

    Grafting roses onto rose hips has long been practiced by gardeners. This is not so difficult to do if you follow the tips and recommendations given above. A competent approach, high-quality material and careful attitude will help to successfully carry out grafting and obtain new varieties.

    How to plant grafted roses

    Each climate zone has its own timing for planting grafted roses. In central Russia, grafted roses are usually planted in the garden:

    • in spring (from 04 to 20.05);
    • in autumn (from 01.09 to 10.10).

    Roses grafted into a standard are planted only in spring. A hole for planting 0.5 * 0.5 m is prepared in the flowerbed. Soil is prepared for backfilling:

    • garden soil (2 hours);
    • humus (2 hours);
    • sand (1 hour).

    A small stake is driven into the center of the hole. Its upper end should not protrude beyond the grafting site. An important point is filling the roots. There shouldn't be any voids. The soil should fit tightly to the roots. The rose is watered generously. The stem is fixed to the peg with soft ties. Support is needed so that the wind does not break it.

    When planting a rose bush grafted into the root collar, follow the rule: the bush is placed so that the root collar is covered with soil and the graft does not protrude above its surface. The optimal location of the budding site is 2 cm below ground level. Excess growth will form if the graft is above ground level. Slow growth of the rose is noted with a strong deepening of the budding site.

    Learning how to propagate roses by grafting is not easy. Practice and the necessary set of knowledge about varieties of roses, types of rootstocks, and their optimal combinations will help.

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